Following these extreme examples, marketologists have evolved to be defensive from straying from brand books and company internal guidelines. Yet, even large corporations with highly streamlined operations can still unintentionally lose control of their intangible assets.
Consider soft drinks giant Pepsi who in 2008 subtly changed their logo to a mixed response from the public. The slight twist to the logo, adding a smiley look to the traditional trademark, wasn't always apparent at first glance. The cost alone of the artwork to Pepsi reached one million dollars. Subsequently, to change all the logos over all the companies estate, such as uniforms, trucks, vending machines, advertising and so on, the estimated cost of this full rebranding project totalled a whopping 1.2 billion dollars.
What is more, the logo was perceived to have included a varying of the width of the white stripe or so called bold smile on the logo, so on different products the logo changed somewhat, the smile could become larger or narrower, as reported by Businessinsider
. Perhaps, it was a designers' concept but it's most likely at the output stage to be down to human error or inconsistent delivery within the company departments.
Even Apple at one point, had to deal with human error during a public launch of one of their products. A photo image by Swiss photographer Sabine Liewald was displayed on the screen of the Apple Retina MacBook Pro shown during the presentation. However, this photograph was actually subject to restrictions; the photo licence had permission for internal use for layout purposes only, and not for commercial use. The error can be attributed to either staff oversight or that the photograph data didn't include the relevant text to warn of restrictions on use. The photographer took Apple to court over copyright infringement.